4.5  Improved Democratic Governance

4.5.1 Principle of multi-party federal democracy     last revised 9/2014
4.5.2 Federal versus local government responsibilities     minor revisions 9/2014
4.5.3 Smallest social and political units
4.5.4 Areas and regions; monitoring ethics and standards of institutions
4.5.5 Improved principles of elections and referenda     last revised 72018
4.5.6 Agency for elections and referenda, composition of parliaments     last revised 9/2014
4.5.7 Legislative and executive functions     minor revisions 9/2014
4.5.8 Functions and tasks of governments
4.5.9 Education, specific government tasks
4.5.10 Health services

4.5.1 Principle of multi-party federal democracy     last revised 9/2014

The proposed political system is a decentralized multiparty parliamentary democracy. Methods of elections and referenda are improved, with better representation of the people’s will while adhering to ethical principles. The proposed model may serve as basis of constitutions for countries with internal turmoil e.g. after ousting a dictator or as basis for mediation in case of a civil war; and it may guide reforms in more stable states, including established democracies.
In order to disrupt entrenched unethical practices in a culture and to minimize conflicts of interests, members of parliament and other elected and appointed leaders should, generally, not be citizens of the area or region they govern or its neighbors. They should be citizens of a distant region. A particular goal is to expose and deal with the broad discrimination against women, the poor and many minorities. Important federal positions should be held by foreigners. As an alternative, important positions may be shared by a local politician (preferably a woman) and a person recruited from a distant area, with all relevant decisions requiring a consensus or with each having veto power.
The country is divided into
– communities (neighborhoods, small towns or groups of settlements) with about 1,000 inhabitants,
– districts (or areas), comparable to counties, e.g. a valley, mid-size city, a quarter of a large city or part of a metropolitan area (typically less than100 communities), and
– regions (comparable to states or provinces); they vary in size, reflecting cultural, geographic and historical boundaries.
Each community elects or designates a male and a female representative. Inhabitants, or, in place of everybody voting, the community representatives elect members of regional and federal parliaments. Community representatives are chosen for one year; they serve as liaison between parliament and communities, discussing with citizens and parliamentarians issues of concern; they may be reelected without limits.
Federal and regional governments have parliaments with two chambers of equal power; a larger chamber consists exclusively of men, a smaller chamber of women. Parliament members elect executive committees, which include parliament members and highly qualified outsiders. Generally, there should be leading committees rather than a president, prime minister or governor.
Parties address priorities and political outlook. They must not be organized according to professions, religions, ethnicities or clans since all people must live by the same ethical standards and government decisions must always consider needs of all people. Governing parties must not suppress cultural traditions and moral standards that do not violate ethics and/or human rights, such as reasonable dress codes; nor are governments allowed to sanction unethical cultural practices such as cruel and/or dangerous forms of initiation. Religious beliefs must be private and never directly influence legislation.
Federal governments must work on improving international conventions and observe them, particularly conventions on human rights, rights of women and protection of children, international laws on private ownership of most types of weapons, disarmament agreements and international agreements on military-free zones, etc.

A significant part of parliament members elected to represent the interests of one area should be from a different, distant area; they are to study the specific issues and problems of the area they want to work for and then present themselves as candidates. At least in countries that are quite homogenous regarding culture, religion and ethnicities, such as Norway or Somalia, the majority of federal parliament members should be foreigners; in countries with great diversity, such as Nigeria, the parliament may be formed exclusively of people of that country. However, if there are many groups, but one group comprises approximately half or more of the country’s population, foreigners should help balance the disequilibrium.
Federal executive committees and ethics committees should generally consist of more than half foreigners. Ad hoc committees that include international scholars should be established to determine the initial composition of parliaments and significant federal committees. The goal is to create parliaments that look at problems objectively and ethically, considering the needs and interests of all people, of the environment and of neighboring areas and states, with minimal risk of conflicts of interests and corruption.
Generally, elected officials should not be eligible for re-election at the end of their term. There should never be a conflict between concerns about being reelected versus doing what is best and most ethical.
In some committees and assemblies of leaders, members may discuss issues at length before voting or seeking consensus. However, such procedures are potentially dangerous: research and experience shows that in groups, emotion-driven reasoning often moves members towards extreme positions which, as individuals, they would consider unacceptable. Safeguards, for instance rules about heterogeneity of committee members, must assure that members think independently and responsibly; members must be careful to learn from each other without reinforcing any propensity towards biases, prejudices and extreme positions. If emotionality appears to start interfering with ethical, pragmatic thinking, decisions should be postponed. All members must attempt to be scrupulously ethical, keeping their ethical values in mind and empathically considering consequences of proposed actions on all others, and conscientious members have an obligation to correct others immediately when arguments include biased beliefs or demagogic rhetoric.

   Representatives and parliament members should be respected by all for wisdom, balanced views, common sense and an understanding of people and problems. Parliamentarians have to participate regularly in educational programs and retreats that provide relevant information about important issues regarding human nature, natural ethics, human rights, economic functioning, healthcare, education, cultural issues and sensitivity, protection of the environment, etc. Scientists are asked to give scientific answers to questions in the area of their expertise, but they also need to have wisdom, balanced views, good judgment and a fund of knowledge outside their areas of expertise to be elected for parliament or for committees. An important principle of a good democracy must be that ethics, the interests of all inhabitants of the country and the world as a whole are considered with some objectivity when evaluating priorities and options, rather than representatives trying to gain benefits for certain districts or regions.
There are executive committees dedicated to all important responsibilities and tasks of the government, including issues of guiding and regulating economic activities, transportation, other infrastructure and protection of the environment, health care, education, culture and entertainment. In addition to standing committees, there may be temporary ‘ad hoc’ committees.
Parties may represent groups of people whose priorities and needs differ from others: a feminist movement may form a party focusing on women’s health issues, girls’ education, adaptation of jobs and higher education programs to women in childbearing age, salaries in jobs primarily chosen by women and conditions of women in jobs primarily chosen by men; gay and with education concerned persons may form a party focusing on improving understanding of the broad range of dispositions in children, and acceptance of gender specific and atypical interests, particularly in areas where there is much fundamentalist religiosity or other prejudices; people who believe their individual pursuits are suppressed by regulations and taxation may form a party; etc. Other parties may simply focus on priorities such as more effectively advancing higher education, interests and protection of workers and farmers, interests of small enterprises, optimal protection of environments or more public investments in all forms of artistic education and public display of works.
Representatives of an ethnic culture or religion must not form parties and parties must avoid goal of essentially repressing other cultures and/or maintaining traditions that are unethical and problematic for society. Examples: it is an ethical goal that, while public schools may have strict dress codes, religious groups have the right to require girls to wear scarves in all public places where there are males other than closest relatives; however, covering face does not allow to see the person’s individuality and expression of mood, which interferes with effective teaching and socializing, and covering much of the time legs arms and face is unhealthy and interferes with children recognizing their mothers from a distance. Some possible goals of parties have to be evaluated according to ethical principles, e.g. the right to maintain tradition of arranged marriages (with sons and daughters having opportunities to get to know each other and having an unambiguous right to refuse arrangement without threat of being ostracized or otherwise excluded from extended family) versus parents may only influence young people’s engagements in attempts to avert impulsive, disastrous marriages; or allowing ‘polygamy’, a parent marrying a second spouse,rather than a couple having to divorce if their relationship turned into a friendship and maintaining the marriage serves to give their children a loving and stable home. Polygamy, in lieu of divorce, may also help women maintain their social status and security. Generally, while public expression of religious affiliations or functions should be 
avoided or minimal, regulations and laws must be implemented with sensitivity and allow exceptins, e.g. peaceful compassion and altruistic work as expressions of spirituality.

4.5.2 Federal versus local government responsibilities     minor revisions 9/2014

Political districts are small, and political decisions are mostly executed at a local level. While communities have about 1,000 inhabitants, clusters of communities form districts or areas (comparable to counties) and larger political units form regions.
Universities and professional organizations offer consultation to the federal and regional governments. Parliaments may elect foreign scholars to participate in governmental committees.
The federal government manages the central bank and provides services and guidelines for local governments. In cooperation with universities, professional organizations and unions, the government monitors ethical standards, quality of products and services, etc. *The federal government has much influence, but exercises little direct power. Tasks of the central and regional governments also include central planning particularly concerning infrastructure, consulting with local governments, and mediating in conflicts between local governments.
The federal government establishes the money supply, collects taxes, and distributes the money between areas, generally returning most tax revenue to areas where it was collected. The central bank supports improvements and/or expansions of industries and agriculture through interest-free loans and grants. These are administered through its branches, the local development banks. The federal government also supervises planning and improvements of infrastructure.
The federal government interprets the application of global or natural ethics and human rights. It gives guidelines regarding appropriate civil liberties, ethical treatment of persons dangerous to self or others, and appropriate help for probable or apparent victims of crimes or abuse.
Governments establish rules and guidelines of ethically acceptable behavior. These are for the most part not absolute. When transgressions cause conflicts, mediation or arbitration may be used, unless a person is considered violent and/or otherwise dangerous and in need of psychosocial and psychiatric help, which may include long-term residential placement.
The federal government establishes guidelines and may enact regulations concerning interregional and global issues such as greenhouse gases, food and water management, etc.
Government-sponsored continuing education for politicians, managers and executives may explain and emphasize the addictive aspect of increasing material wealth and power and their futility in the pursuit of a happy and meaningful life. Worldwide problems such as global warming and food-water shortages must also be repeatedly addressed.
Most government services are primarily the responsibility of local governments, including education, health care, mediation and conflict resolution services, and local infrastructure. Decentralized government agencies usually contract with local enterprises provide the services for which they take responsibility to do construction work, etc.; or they may pay citizens to buy services such as school education. Government institutions may fill in gaps in the system or compete with inferior private institutions.

Universities, professional organizations and central governments cooperate in establishing guidelines for local governments, addressing school education; preventive, acute, chronic and palliative mental and physical health care services; support for families in need and care of disabled and elderly persons; care of children whose parents and relatives are not in a position to raise them; etc. Universities and federal government agencies also issue information and guidelines in order to avoid erroneous ‘political correctness.’ Examples: the disregard of the big differences between boys’ and girls’ minds and bodies, and the false beliefs that very early academic education is usually beneficial. In addition, public universities should educate the public concerning health, safety, environmental toxins, etc.
While governments pay for education, health services, etc. there may be fees or rewards to create incentives for the wise use of resources. Clinics may issue coupons for healthy refreshments when women come to prenatal appointments; clinics, schools and work places may issue reward coupons for walking some distance to school or work or using bicycles (or other human-powered vehicles); there may be moderate fees for changing study goals, and fees for medical treatments that are necessary due to unhealthy lifestyle (e.g. medications for diabetes that can be controlled with diet and exercise or surgery for morbid obesity).

4.5.3 Smallest social and political units

The smallest political units, communities, consist of a neighborhood, a town, or a group of small villages and/or settlements. Communities have approximately a thousand inhabitants. Smaller social units, usually consisting of less than 150 inhabitants, are not politically organized and overlap. Particularly in areas where there is considerable migration, multicultural communities are encouraged, although small minority groups may feel closer to related groups in other areas than to their follow community members. More traditional immigrants may form their own communities but they must adapt practices and traditions that violate human rights to ethical standards.
Socially and culturally, diversity within and between areas and/or regions is encouraged. Communities and groups of communities may adhere to distinctive social-cultural patterns. They may avoid the use of money for most economic interactions between its members. Local culture may determine regulations regarding building styles and preferred building materials, ways of clothing, locally produced and marketed goods, and land use patterns. There may be celebrations and rites of passage that are distinctly different from place to place. To help people with psychological problems or as a matter of local culture, some communities may be established with simple, monastic organization and culture. Its inhabitants may focus on scientific, artistic, humanitarian or other specialized pursuits, and they may focus on simple, healthy lifestyles that include frequent meditation and/or specific spiritual practices, individually and in groups. Interactions between small political units within a region may include any mixture of competition, isolationism with relative self-sufficiency, and cooperative pursuits.
Ways of choosing community leaders may be informal and rely on traditional culture. Decision-making may be referred to delegates or representatives. Important decisions may be assigned to a chosen leader, or a committee may decide by vote or by seeking consensus. However, procedures and committee discussions must be ethical and based on data-supported opinions. If women are not equally involved in community decisions, safeguards must assure that women are organized and always have the right to force a change of traditional principles of leadership and to reverse an introduced change that appears clearly unethical. Area and regional governments supervise the observance of ethics.
Local government officials, elected or appointed, must focus on ethical matters with or without approval by their constituents, e.g. when a majority of community members support traditions or actions that violate human rights. Ethics, including tolerance and mutual respect, are taught and fostered at all levels. When addressing traditional and condoned practices that violate human rights, adapted traditions and changed practices should preserve their cultural function while being ethical.

The size of communities approximates a natural limit above which people no longer have the sense of knowing who belongs versus who is an outsider, intruder or guest; that is, when society becomes anonymous. Communities are semi-anonymous while the smallest social units are below 150 people, the maximum number of people that humans naturally may consider a close group. Schools, clubs, NGOs, grassroots’ movements and economic entities should be broken down into units or sections of 150 or less people, often with multiple units working closely together.
Communities are generally self-governed while area, regional and federal governments must include outsiders to avert continued condoning of unethical traditions and practices and reduce the tendency to favoritism and corruption. For this reason, governments of areas and regions must oversee the observation of human rights and ethical decision-making.

4.5.4 Areas and regions; monitoring ethics and standards of institutions

Areas and regions are more defined by centers of culture and trade than boundaries. Area borders for the administration of utilities may follow geographic boundaries. Education and cultural districts may follow ethnic, historical, and linguistic boundaries. Transportation systems must consider culturally determined needs and geographic feasibility in their organization. Communities and families in border areas may choose their alliance to one or another cultural-educational center, and people are free to seek educational and health services at the institution of their choice, i.e. not necessarily in their own community or cultural-educational area. They may seek services from governmental institutions or government funded private institutions. Institutions are generally small or consist of a number of small sub-units and they have a community-like quality.
Area and regional governments may vary in their organization. Continuing some cultural traditions, there may be remnants of a constitutional monarchy or ceremonial leaders with little actual powers. Forms of parliament or legislative and executive assemblies may vary some. Leaders may represent a religion if their beliefs and past behaviors include tolerance and are compatible with global or natural ethics; however, generally there should be separation of religion and government. Governments must not adhere to religion specific morals but follow principles of natural or global ethics.
Universities, generally instituted and administered by regional governments with federal guidance, have important advisory functions for governments at all levels, particularly for monitoring standards and for long-term planning. Universities cooperate with governmental agencies in setting guidelines for effective self-monitoring, self-censorship, and peer supervision for all types of institutions including professional organizations, unions, and government bodies. Guidelines may become regulations. If regulations are formulated and enforced, they need to be periodically revised or, when appropriate, phased out. Consequences of rules and regulations are monitored and evaluated regarding intended outcomes and unexpected effects. Universities, professional organizations, unions and government agencies share responsibility for ethical decision-making at all levels, and for maintaining high standards in production and services.

A particular issue that universities and governments must address is the strong propensity of institutions to rigidly adhere to traditional beliefs, requirements and procedures, and/or conversely, to make sweeping changes, trying to be modern, without having evaluated a new trend. Examples: Studies regarding human behaviors kept denying the importance of powerful instincts and the obvious differences between boys and girls even though observational data has been unmistakable and there were good scientific studies. Medical schools in many parts of the world insisted on requiring the knowledge of Latin, and training follows an old mode; while in training, young doctors have often been expected to practice medicine above their scope of competency without supervision. Drug companies and professional groups created a model of treating all mood and anxiety disorders like medical diseases, prescribing medications that address symptoms, even though research clearly showed greater benefits of short specific individual or group psychotherapies. On the other side, the introduction of calculators and computers lead many educators to assume that basic mental mathematics is a waste of time, that handwriting is obsolete, and that memorizing a framework of scientific and historical data is no longer needed. It appears obvious and research supports that these assumptions were incorrect. People also ignored seemingly obvious deleterious and dangerous consequences of many or most video games. They felt satisfied that probably 99.99% of players will not act out forms of violence which they enjoy in the games, accepting that 0.01% or one in 10,000 may. [As there are some 20 million males in their twenties in the USA, 0.01% of players are a large number of dangerous people.] Many more will often think in violent rather than peaceful ways.

4.5.5 Improved principles of elections and referenda    revised 7/2018

In this model, we review the general distinction between common citizens with equal but minimal rights and powers (everybody’s vote having equal but minimal weight), versus elected and appointed officials with moderate to extraordinary powers. For many issues, rights to vote ought to be limited to concerned and/or knowledgeable and properly informed individuals. To qualify for elected and appointed offices, individuals should, as a rule, fulfill educational requirements and be involved in continuing education. Education of candidates for political offices and appointed officials should include training in applying ethics in mediation, arbitration and conflict resolution approaches, and generally in decision making; education should also include studies in economics and biology-ecology, and politicians must be familiarity with approaches that address problems in these areas.
As a rule, elected officials must not be eligible for immediate reelection, so that they are not distracted by what their constituents may, at the time, prefer; an elected official’s task is to decide what is best in the long run, for the country and world. Several years later, a former official may run again for a similar or the same position.

Improved principles of voting are proposed. 
(We expect that there usually is a multi-party system with many candidates and possibly many equal positions, as in case of representatives in a chamber of parliament.)
• In elections, 
voters must ‘grade’ and rank all candidates as “A,” “B,” “C” (very good, good, acceptable), “D” (no opinion, unknow or questionably acceptable), “F” (not qualified for position, unacceptable), “W” (worst, likely harmful or dangerous if elected). Within ‘grades’, candidates are ranked as best, second, third, etc. A computerized system assigns numbers and analyzes them. To be elected, candidates must have high average numbers with less than half the population considering them unqualified and few considering them worst/dangerous.
• In referenda in which people vote on different options of goals, specific public projects, etc. a similar system of voting may be used if there are different proposals to a given issue (ranking options, determining which considered ‘acceptable’ or ‘possibly acceptable’).
• In voting on a dollar amount or percentage, all voting persons give a number; the median is the result (half voted higher, half lower).
In more complex and detailed issues, as in the determination of luxury and dyseconomy taxes, referenda may be held using a representative sample of the population and a group of academicians. The persons chosen for such committees are paid to study the issues including literature on opinions of specialists, citizens’ organizations, journalists, etc., and may discuss issues before reaching consensus or voting. Their task is to find ethical solutions (that consider long term consequences), not to represent (biased) opinions of a poorly informed majority or representing a group of which they are members. People in such committees who do not understand certain issues are expected to abstain from voting and/or expressing a strong opinion. Misguided arguments and misleading statements should be promptly corrected and/or critically reviewed by most knowledgeable participants.
Specific issues may be decided by committees of paid academicians and consultants. These are generally invited by elected officials; if they accept serving on the specific committee, they may require confirmation by one of both chambers of the parliament.
   In‘ ‘grading’ and ranking candidates for a or multiple positions, “A” means very good, close to ideal, “B” – good definitely acceptable, “C” – fair, more or less acceptable, “D” – no opinion, unknown OR questionably acceptable, “F” – not qualified, unacceptable, “W” – worst, far from acceptable, likely to be harmful or dangerous. Within ‘grades’, candidates are ranked as best, second, third, etc.: A1, A2, A3, etc. A computerized system assigns numbers, e.g. “A” candidates (A1, A2 and A3) receive 93, 90 and 87; “B” candidates receive 77-83; “C” candidates 62-68; “D” candidates 47-53; “F” candidates 27-33; “W” candidates 7-13. To be elected, candidates must have high average numbers with less than half the population considering them unqualified and few considering them worst/dangerous.
   The system of judging candideates as “good,” “acceptable”, “questionably acceptable” and “unacceptable” is important: In present two-party systems with no run-off elections, a candidate may be elected by a minority, while in systems with run-off elections, moderate candidates are often lost in initial voting, and candidates remaining in the final election may be considered unacceptable by the majority of the population. For example, a right and a left extreme candidate may both receive slightly more than a third of the votes and become the remaining candidates in the run-off election, even if both appear unacceptable by moderates and members of their opposing party.

4.5.6 Agency for elections and referenda, composition of parliaments     last revised 9/2014

A separate, independent, and politically neutral branch of the central government organizes elections and referenda. Because inadequate, biased or misleading information prevent elections from expressing the will and values of the people, this agency is charged with preparing and publicizing accurate and relevant information about candidates for political offices and topics of referenda. The agency may arrange discussions in radio and television and occasionally opportunities for public speeches of candidates. No other institutions or individuals are allowed to directly advertise in political campaigns. Individuals, groups, and parties may publish opinions and advice to voters, but must state what the opinions are based on, and they are obliged to inform the agency before publication, giving it an opportunity to counter and elaborate on questionable claims or unethical and ethically questionable statements.
This agency also determines requirements for political positions (primarily educational), and who is allowed to vote in different referenda. Children, mentally handicapped, and poorly educated persons cannot vote, but their interests are represented by intelligent, involved adults. If a referendum concerns women’s health and reproductive issues, the agency is likely to determine that only women can vote. For certain elections or referenda, older adolescents may have a vote.
The agency organizes contacts of elected and appointed officials with private citizens and interest groups. People who want to participate in political meetings and talk to elected officials, as individuals or in small groups, have to do so as volunteers. They should primarily represent groups they observe and/or work with in a helping or service function, not groups that represent egoistic, particularly personal financial interests. Paid lobbying is not allowed. Concerns of professional groups such as health care providers or teachers should be discussed with politicians in groups that include providers and recipients of services, such as teachers and parents of students, doctors and other clinic or hospital staff and sociologists that interviewed many patient.
Local governments do not have follow conventional voting. Community meetings that are open to all inhabitants may discuss issues and seek consensus, or elders who volunteer their services may be given authority to lead, however safeguards, possibly in the form of peer supervision by leaders of other communities, must prevent a propensity towards extreme positions, and area governments must monitor observance of ethics.

A significant part of parliament members elected to represent the interests of one area should be from a different, distant area; they are to study specific issues and problems of the area they want to work for and then present themselves as candidates. At least in countries that are quite homogenous regarding culture, religion and ethnicities, such as Norway or Somalia, the majority of federal parliament members should be foreigners; in countries with great diversity, such as Nigeria, the parliament may be formed exclusively of people of that country. However, if there are many groups, but one group comprises approximately half or more of the country’s population, foreigners should help balance the disequilibrium. Federal executive committees and ethics committees should generally consist of more than half foreigners.
An ad hoc committee that includes international scholars is formed to determine the initial composition of the agency for election and referenda, parliaments (local versus outsiders) and significant federal committees. This original committee may be chosen and appointed by the assembly of community representatives, based on public acknowledgments as ethical scholars, mediators, journalists, etc., and assuring diversity of members (both genders, different age groups, different educational experiences, different cultural background, agnostics and different religious affiliations, etc.).
Members of this agency are volunteers, approved as candidates by their communities, and chosen by present committee members in accordance with rules of heterogeneity (. Foreigners who volunteer are screened by the present members of the agency. Communities have to affirm that candidates are ethical and have relevant education that includes sciences, journalism and humanities.

4.5.7 Legislative and executive functions     minor revisions 9/2014

There is no separation of legislative and executive; there is no president. There are permanent executive committees and for specific tasks created committees. Elected representatives (members of parliament) volunteer for and are elected and/or confirmed to serve in committees. These committees communicate with other governments (federal or regional), government agencies within the country or foreign government representatives, and they organize or delegate the execution of decisions.
As in most Western democracies, there is a two-chamber parliament, however, the two chambers must be meaningfully different. To insure appropriate treatment of issues primarily concerning women, to enhance the position of women politicians and to promote feminine ways of addressing conflicts, the smaller chamber consists of elected women, the larger chamber consists of elected men. In some regional governments, two chambers may represent different ethnic-cultural groups, with equal representation of men and women in both chambers; however this division is less meaningful since all elected representatives must rely on scientific data and follow ethics in their decision-making. They are responsible for improving human rights of all groups, and they must work on abandoning unethical cultural traditions or, if feasible, changing them so that they comply with human rights while maintaining *their meaning and significance.
Ethical decision-making is monitored through a process of self-monitoring and peer supervision, and by a federal agency or permanent ethics committee. Scholars and journalists may independently review ethical aspects of all actions discussed or planned by government representatives. Elected and appointed officials as well as journalists covering political issues must be monitored with regard to untrue or illogical statements, or encouraging and /or condoning unethical procedures. In cases such as culturally sanctioned physical and educational neglect of girls, physical punishing of wives, discrimination against minorities and private ownership of dangerous weapons, officials must act in accordance with cross-culturally accepted ethical guidelines and scientific data rather than follow the opinion of the majority.
Whenever decisions are made and laws enacted, representatives have to define purposes and goals. If the enforcement or execution of a law has unexpected and negative consequences, formulations and interpretations of the law have to be reevaluated. Local implementation must follow the spirit (intent) of the law.
National armies are transformed into disaster relief and international peacekeeping units. Political, cultural, and economic cooperation are strengthened; and there is close involvement with international bodies (see below).

In politics, female perspectives in issues are often more appropriate and relevant for a civilization than male perspectives. The genetically (directly by genes in Y chromosome) determined anatomic differences between male and female brains1 are significant and lead to different ways of dealing with social and physical environments; hormones add further to the stark differences between young men and women. At all ages, men and women tend to think and feel quite differently about specific issues, and they approach problems differently. Functional brain imaging shows that in men and women similar tasks and forms of stress activate different parts of the brain. Generally, men are more dogmatic, logically consequent and legalistic, women more pragmatic and socially conscious. Men may look at a potential action in narrowly goal-oriented ways; women simultaneously consider consequences for families and society. Men are more likely to either accept dogmas of a religion or reject the religion, women seem more able to feel religious and accept much of a patriarchal religion while knowing that they disagree with some teachings, and they readily accept exceptions to categorical religious laws (for example, a women may fundamentally disapprove of abortions as a matter of religious belief but understand that in many cases, exceptions are justified). Men tend to be more inconsiderate in competitive behaviors while women tend to be more concerned with creating and maintaining good relationships. However, there is considerable adaptability of mental functions; in specific situations, some men may behave and think in a way seemingly typical of women and vice versa. When examining how large groups deal with conflicts and specific tasks, either typical masculine or feminine ways tend to dominate. Many women politicians and administrators had to adapt to ways of their male colleagues, i.e. ways that may not feel natural to them and often appear inferior to more feminine approaches.

4.5.8 Functions and tasks of governments

The federal and local governments are designed to accept all duties which citizens and private organization should not and cannot responsibly fulfill, including:
– election system and operation of government
– assessing and collecting tax
– operating the federal bank and its branches, the local development banks
– support of the unemployed and planning for the creation of jobs
– minimum basic income for every citizen
– sick and maternity/parental leave, temporary disability, and short-term unemployment income
– pensions for retirement, chronic disability, extended parental leave, unemployment, needs of minors when a parent is institutionalized or otherwise unable to care for his/her child(ren)
– partial pensions when working part-time and raising children, taking care of ill or disabled relatives or friends, transitioning into retirement, etc.
– aid for accident and crime victims
– education of children/adolescents and adult continuing education
– institutions of higher education and research (state and autonomous universities), and cultural institutions, including museums and libraries
– health care and psychological-psychiatric care including preventive and palliative measures, universal access to family planning, special services such as long-term residential facilities
– veterinary services for farmers
– mediation and arbitration services
– agencies for enforcement of ethics and human rights;
– basic shelter for any inhabitant
– multipurpose community buildings
– infrastructure including utilities, communication systems and public transportation with extensive rail systems that include narrow track and high speed lines;
– town and city parks, recreational facilities, large natural parks, nature preserves
– fire fighter and other disaster relief units
– army for peacekeeping missions and emergency disaster relief
– disaster relief, including reconstruction and prevention of future, similar disasters, and other forms of domestic aid in special situations
– foreign development and humanitarian aid (bilateral and multilateral)
– cooperation with and contributions to international agencies, such as the U. N., international organization of religions, international mediation services, and tribunals enforcing global ethics and human rights.

Employers should not and often cannot provide sick and paternity leave payments; if such payments are responsibility of employers, there is a strong incentive to discriminate against women in childbearing age, etc. However, pensions for extended parental leave and chronic disability are lower than usual salaries and must not preclude recipients from doing some paid or volunteer work.
State universities which cooperate closely with government agencies and researchers in industries address primarily present needs of a population, its government, and its economy, as well as broad higher education that advances the understanding of technologies and of human behaviors. They also teach understanding and appreciation of arts; students are to learn expressing themselves in different forms of art. State universities participate in administering libraries, museums, parks, nature preserves, etc. Specialty branches of state universities include research facilities and teaching institutions, such as university hospitals that offer medical training.
Autonomous universities are less interacting with governments and other institutions. They offer studies and research opportunities in areas not or not yet directly associated with present economic needs and technological endeavors; their activities include basic sciences, such as astronomy, research of subatomic particles and nanotechnologies, basic research related to medicine such as genetics and understanding neuronal activities on a cellular and molecular level, as well as aspects of liberal arts education not considered part of general education, such as old languages, historical studies, studies of specific aspects of old painters and musicians, etc.
Governments provide an infrastructure that includes rail systems with very narrow to standard track and high speed intercity trains. Very thinly and mountainous regions greatly benefit from very inexpensively and easy to build train line of 70cm track, rarely even 50cm; more important lines may be connected with 100cm light rail systems; narrow track trains may include cogwheel technology in mountains. In all areas, small light-rail double track (one-way) trains that connect all communities are preferable to larger trains with infrequent rides, few stations and excluding many communities.

4.5.9 Education, specific government tasks

Preschool, primary, and secondary education includes academics, life skills, sports, arts, exposure to nature and applied ethics (particularly practicing broad empathy). Differences between the sexes and differences in temperament and propensities among children are appreciated. Since many benefits of separating girls and boys in school have been documented education and classes are partly or largely sex-segregated, particularly in secondary schools1. Schools also offer constructive structured activities for young people after school, on weekends and during vacations, they offer adult education and they may organize artistic and sports activities for people of all ages. Schools may also offer parenting classes and help organizing psychosocial support for families.
Universities may primarily address present needs or pursue insights in basic sciences and/or research and teachings in the humanities (autonomous universities). Universities must address technologies directly related to quality of life and quality of environments, including medical, psychological-psychiatric, and related research; energy conservation partly by designing compact, improved housing, reduced commuting and much more efficient transportation of goods and people; designing and building human powered and small engine vehicles that are adapted to local conditions; further development of renewable energy production; etc. Governments attempt to enhance healthy social interactions through architecture, city planning and public transportation.
Communities or area governments provide temporary and permanent small rooms or cabins in camp settings with communal bathroom facilities, covered cooking places, and adequately sheltered and protected play, exercise, and study spaces for children and adults. Basic shelters in campground-like environments serve the homeless and people not fitting well into social structures.
For public transportation and transportation of goods, railroads are safest and most efficient and promote social contact: high-speed trains, standard gauge, light rail, and very small narrow-track trains depending on local needs and terrain.
National park systems include very large areas of preserves that may include habitats of endangered species and areas of indigenous gathering-hunting civilizations. Dispersed natural preserves have unobstructed corridors between them whenever possible. Such preserves may not be crossed by traffic lines other than tunnels and rail lines built ten to sixteen feet (3-5m) above ground to protect natural movements of animals and local people.

4.5.10 Health Services

Health services are decentralized, working with nurse practitioners, pharmacologists, psychologists, first aid and emergency specialists, etc. giving ready access to services to people of all areas. There is a focus on prevention. Healthy lifestyles are encouraged at all levels of education. Media must not advertise to children, and children’s exposure to addicting unhealthy foods, video games, etc. should be minimal. Health education needs to include parents and grandparents who may pass on wisdom but often also damaging misinformation and traditions.
Goals of research and care institutions strive to offer technically optimal medical, dental and psychiatric care in a humane environment and assuring good pain management. Conventional approaches, hypnosis and self-hypnosis, acupuncture and other traditional techniques may be integrated. Research must focus on improving treatment of all conditions that are fairly frequent, usually very painful, disabling, etc.
Psychological-psychiatric services are readily available to persons of all ages, including individual, family and group teachings and specific therapies. Preventive teachings are offered in schools, e.g. addressing happiness and resilience promoting activities, healthy attitudes between genders, minimizing bullying, harassment and excessive competiveness, etc. There are therapeutically oriented communities and camps for persons unable to adequately protect themselves or care for themselves, and/or who are dangerous to self or others, including psychotic, antisocial, mentally retarded and demented patients. Families and individuals not considered to need such communities may temporarily or permanently live in there, if they wish.
Families who have difficulties caring well for their child(ren) are offered help, e.g. rather than being placed into foster care, a ‘foster’ aunt or uncle helps and monitors progress. Abusive parents receive help while children are protected, usually without severing their bond. If adopted, the child’s natural mother should continue contact, acting like an aunt, if feasible. Children’s villages serve children who need foster families, temporary or long-term. Broad support services for children and foster parents are provided.
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1 Sax, Leonard: Why Gender Matters, 2000, Boys Adrift,2006, Girls on the Edge, 2010

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