Chapter 1

1.2 Human Nature and Economic Behaviors

last revised/edited 11/2010, 1/’12, 10/’16, 4,5/’17, 5/2019

1.2.1 Social and economic roles within societies
1.2.2 Social effects and social costs of modern capitalism  added 5/2019
1.2.3 Poverty  added 5/2019
1.2.4 Ownership of resources: psychological effects of debt
1.2.5 Stratification and modern socioeconomic classes
1.2.6 Causes and consequent inefficiencies, discrimination  added 4/2017

• People are primarily guided by instincts, cultural influences, and economic incentives. Human ethology, the study of cultures and moral teachings, and economics deal with the question “who does what for whom and why?”
• People have a need to be part of families and other groups.
• Cultures of tribes and countries promote conflicting inclinations: efforts to rise in rank versus adjusting to present status; showing off possessions, skills or individuality versus seeking privacy and being in the economic-social ‘middle-class’; having a family versus more personal means or a demanding career; pursuing meaningful, idealistic goals versus seeking personal comfort and luxuries and/or exclusively working for oneself and one’s family; focus on circumstances and opportunities narrowly and short-term versus broadly and long-term; etc. However, what people pursue is largely determined by group and family culture.
• Humans have naturally ambivalence towards people that are not part of a familiar group, being interested but also afraid and not readily trusting the outsider. Humans naturally also prefer working with kin and others with whom they have much in common rather than strangers that are perceived as different from us. These propensities make it hard for employers to be objective and for outsiders to get good jobs.
• As in chimpanzees, in humans of small groups or villages the females leave their home to find an unrelated mate. The females then have no allies. Women often have to give up their family name and will rarely see their siblings and parents. Males usually inherited territory, workshops and land, of their fathers and they maintain strong relationships within their communities. This is probably a major reason for women’s week social status in virtually all cultures.
• In capitalist systems, economic incentives encourage and reward many choices that worsen people’s and societies’ problems. They often encourage the exploitation of people’s insecurities and worsen the discrimination against women and many other groups.
• Poor people usually overspend, considering goods that middle-class people have necessities; wealthy people live luxuriously but still invest and become wealthier.
• Accumulating wealth and power are addicting, but so are buying and consuming.
• Credit is addicting and most people are indebted, often with disastrous consequences.
• Discrimination is always inefficient. However, women have been universally discriminated against, partly because of their ways to approach conflicts, set goals and pursue them. Employment niches that attract women are usually devalued and poorly paid. Appearance: attractiveness, frequent preference of light skin color, ethnicity, and many other factors are often a focus of discrimination.
• Much of what women do is outside the money economy and severely undervalued.

1.2.1 Social and  economic roles within societies
Ethology (the study of inherent animal and human behaviors), the study of cultures, ethics and economics address the basic questions “Who does what for whom and why?” or “Who should do what for whom and why?” Instincts are fundamental; culturally taught morals and ethics are derived from instincts and supported by the inherent desire to be “right.” Economics also considers models of human decision-making processes, and economists, more than social scientists, have powerfully influenced developments. However, results were usually not what was hoped for, and economists are terrible in predicting developments. Human nature has been broadly misunderstood; and the economic systems work like bad behavior modification programs, often rewarding behaviors that do not seem rational, do not support overall goals of individuals and societies, and cause instability and much suffering.
Every activity or non-activity has an economic aspect. We utilize time and resources being in some ways productive , or for enjoyments, to eat, to relax and recuperate, etc. We produce, as working adults for our, later and previous generations, and we consume in all stages of life. Biological and cultural factors influence choices.
Biologically, humans have a need to be part of a group. However, our instincts are not designed for living in large anonymous societies, and people usually attempt to form groups within the anonymity of their stratified cultures. Most people are loosely associated with multiple overlapping groups. Within a group and within larger societal units, individuals are to some degree competitive, wanting to rise in rank, but often fear being first: people generally like being in the middle range and tend to buy the “Volkswagen” [people’s car] of their culture in order not to be conspicuous, appear poor or arouse jealousy. There are, of course, people who want above all comfort and luxuries and some want to openly express their individuality, which is particularly promoted in the U.S. economic system. Some are very ambitious and/or narcissistic, wanting to exhibit their successes, and they may also aspire to become leaders. Still, in many situations people feel good subordinating their needs to established hierarchical structures. Global ethics focusing on what people generally prefer than simply “want,” places a high value on peace above crude and to others hurtful competitiveness and revenge thinking.
All people consume and most also produce goods and services, within families or in the money economy. Some work is apparently productive and valuable, but many earn money in some indirect ways as managers or traders, still many others perceive their work to be productive but they primarily manipulate assets that are the product of others’ work or they influence consumers in many ways. Market forces are supposed to determine people’s incomes from commercial work, but the structure of job hierarchies and the valuation of different types of work evolved over centuries. Wealthy people and skillful politicians may be successful in influencing job hierarchies and income levels.
In non-egalitarian societies, relatively poor people tend to overspend, often buying what average-income people own, which they consider ‘necessities’. Poor people want to feel and be perceived as part of the middleclass. People of the economic middleclass, often feeling insecure, may overspend to better “fit in” and acquire what is perceived as safer. The relatively wealthy live often more leisurely and luxurious lives but tend to underspend, not spending too conspicuously and often investing considerable amounts. While upper middleclass people may invest some, safe investments rarely earn much; wealthy people can gamble in their investment strategies and, in the average, earn much more. In all socio-economic classes, capitalism tends to encourage, competitiveness, and narcissistic tendencies in order to sell more prestigious, expensive products.
People are naturally afraid of becoming isolated and having no help when old and disabled. People living longer, having smaller families, and moving more has aggravated this problem. Moral-cultural expectation and compassion leads successful family members to offer the less fortunate ones some assistance. Through charities, people may also help strangers and people may give to beggars. Orphans and children of destitute, sick, and/or mentally disturbed mothers may be taken care of by relatives with adequate homes, sometimes temporarily or intermittently, sometimes as adopted family members; and non-relative foster and adoptive parents may raise such children. However, most people have much ambivalence with regard to helping others.
Affluent parents still spend considerably on their children’s education and support, but governments became primary providers of education and governmental, rather than religious institutions, have the duty to support the destitute and disabled. However, public agencies are often underfunded and overwhelmed by the needs. Many people are socially marginalized and are desperately poor. Substance abuse, physical and mental disorders and additional legal problems may compound their deprivation.

1.2.2 Social effects and social costs of modern capitalism    added 5/2019
Particularly in the U.S., capitalism is promoting individualism, however, competition by small enterprises is often eradicated by oligopolies; rather than buying different products from small enterprises, people must choose mostly between economical and expensive products from large producers, or they may buy fancy imported goods. Expressing individualism is generally not related to improving quality of life and may include buying very impractical clothing and vehicles, having piercings and tattoos, etc. People’s pursuits are often expensive and time consuming. People may become addicted to increasing their income and wealth, consuming luxuries and ‘expressing their individuality’ with tattoos, jewelry, etc. People spend much on making their children’s lives appear richer and ‘above average,’ They often move because of economic opportunities, hardly considering how stressful moves are for their children and how they create distance between family members and friends. All these factors contribute to people’s hesitance in helping others in need.
Particularly pernicious in capitalism are the wasteful, damaging activities of financial institutions: highly intelligent people enrich themselves by managing others’ work and assets. While skimming off large profits, investors distort the market, speculating where profits are achievable and where desires may be created. Investors decide where much of our circulating money is allocated.
Investments in advertising target people’s weaknesses, creating insecurities and desires; advertisements are designed to influence people by distracting and harassing them while showing something that seems positive. They invade computers and spy, collecting data on people’s interests and problems, so that targeted advertisements can be inserted when people are on the Internet. They may use slick salespersons calling to mislead people, sending recorded phone messages, doing phone surveys for more specific advertizing, mixing misleading advertisements into important mail, etc. Apparently advertising is considered effective in spying on people, creating targeted desires and increasing sales of products people do not need and would hardly think of buying, all of which should be considered grossly unethical. Political advertising often uses slander and exploits the fact that people are more influenced by what is negative than positive, even if negative accounts are later proven false; political advertisers use unethical spying to influence potential voters in targeted ways.
Virtually everybody pays for the salaries and profits of investors and advertisers. People are harassed and make more unwise decisions, loose resources and have to work more. The parasitic financial and advertising institutions harm individuals with damaging effects on their character development and choices, and they impair societies functioning; corrupt activities distort political processes.
Part of what has driven the economy and makes advertising more effective is personalized, artificial intelligence-driven Internet advertising and increasingly ready access to credit, being able to buy and consume before or while earning the money to pay for it. Credit is addicting, and people are attracted to gambling, taking a risk and hoping one will earn enough to make promised payments. Obviously, some forms of ‘gambling’ are necessary in the life: we never know the outcome of the important decision we must make, vocational, concerning marriage and/or children, moves, etc. In stock market gambling, investors may believe they can predict outcomes but generally it is only known that, on the long run, average investments are always profitable. In casino and race gambling, part of the addicting quality comes from the minds craving to find patterns that will predict probabilities of outcomes. Obviously in true randomness, there are no patterns but the gambler hopes he can learn ways to win. Particularly poor people often waste much money in lotteries, hoping to some day win and be able to retire with some security.

1.2.3 Poverty    added 5/2019
Ethically, societies have an obligation to help parents in need and to lift the poor to a living standard close to the median, if not average of a people. Previously, family members and religious-charitable organizations were considered responsible for the unlucky poor and disabled. Today, religious institutions play a very minor role in helping the needy; many non-profit organizations are more interested in services for the middleclass, providing gyms and swimming pools, etc.; and families are overwhelmed by what they perceive as “needed.”
Capitalism basically fosters a large and growing income gap between wealthy and poor. For wealthy people it is easy to save and profitably invest. Middleclass people can buy gods at competitive prices but rarely have resources to invest; when saving some, interests are less than inflation rates. Many in the U.S. have no health insurance or very high deductibles. For poor people, virtually everything is more expensive than for the middleclass; small stores charge more, renting is relatively and on the long run more expensive than owning a dwelling; when borrowing, poor people are charged higher interests; healthcare costs for the uninsured are much higher than what insurance companies would pay and usually lead people into insurmountable debt. While poverty is relative, it feels real and has many negative effects.
Governments should fulfill societies’ obligation to lift everybody, particularly families, out of poverty. However, because of middleclass and wealthy people’s preoccupation with their own income, standard of living and wealth, politicians direct most resources towards growing the economy and providing for the least needy.
Poverty, people living significantly below the standard of a community’s middleclass, usually leads to people being indebted. Unmanageable debts lead to depression and poor functioning with consequent child neglect. Unplanned pregnancies are frequent partly due to lack of reliable contraception and people living from moment to moment. Many children grow up in broken homes, blended families and chaotic environments.    Considering biology and economics, we expect that children who do not grow up with their natural parents will not get the love and care their peers of intact families receive, and as young adults they are often cut off from needed support. Statistics show that step-, adoptive and foster parents are much more likely than natural parents to abuse and kill a child. When there are uncertainties and conflicts, new mothers often suffer postpartum depression, which is detrimental for the infant, her older children and supporting adults (including the father, if he is around). The distressed mother may become preoccupied with killing her infant or commit suicide after killing all her children.

1.2.4 Ownership of resources: psychological effects of debt
As adults, people naturally expected that they must work first, then trade what they produced or spend what they earned. There was a sense of stability in knowing that what one has is fully paid for, that nobody can take things back because of an unpaid debt. If savings were inadequate to start an enterprise, people may have relied on family; people knew and trusted each other.
However, as borrowing became easier, it has been enticing, even addicting: buying gives a temporary “high” and is rewarded by receiving a desirable good or service. If using one of multiple credit cards, people are much more able and inclined to frivolously buy luxuries, than if they hold a limited amount of cash and tradable goods. Accepting credit is an attractive form of gambling; the borrowers never know whether they can make the required loan payments.
In modern economies, particularly in the U.S. and U. K., the financing of economic activities gradually shifted from using primarily savings and cash to relying on credit. While culturally inclined to save, the opportunity to get credit becomes for most people irresistible. The cost of credit is substantial, particularly for the poor and minorities; they are often charged higher interests because bankers assume that there is a higher risk. Though not producing anything, “financial services” have become a large part of the national product.
People may have to “gamble,” making important decisions with unknown consequences and many enjoy taking risks, in private matters and vocationally. For some, avoiding active decision-making is also a decision, and for many, there are hardly any options. Still, the feelings when agreeing to an essentially arranged marriage or job placement may be similarly positive as when deciding without paternalistic influence; in either case, positive feelings, anxieties and some fears are likely. Freedom to get much on credit or to easily obtain loans for a new enterprise is not necessarily enhancing a person’s quality of life.
For businesses it may make sense to borrow, if increased earnings are expected to be greater than debt services; and borrowing is enticing like gambling. Earnings can never be accurately predicted and the enterprise loses some of its autonomy: to get a loan, a loan officer must approve the plans of improvements, expansion, or research – loan officer are generally conservative and hardly understand valuable innovations.
Daring entrepreneurs may look for money from venture capitalists. Obviously, the primary objective has to be earning profits, sometimes by offering new avenues to advertise expensive products. Both, entrepreneur and venture capitalists gamble. Many start-up companies never become profitable, but high profits are extracted in the successful ones, sometimes in unethical ways that border illegality.
Many forms of profitable investing and selling “financial instruments” have been invented, and banks are free to lend many times more money than what they hold. The supply of borrowed financial assets has much increased in recent decades.
Working with credit, acquiring debts, has major psychological and indirect consequences affecting individuals and their families. Overspending and “living on the edge” without any savings may seem exciting for young people, but later it leads to chronic anxiety. Addicted to borrowing and buying, people frequently buy goods that complicate their lives while at best having marginal value with regard to improving quality of life. People have less inclination to think of saving for hard times because they consider luxuries necessities and they trust that they can borrow more. They will hardly think about giving to others, family or strangers. In most families, both parents have to work to pay off debts and to maintain the level of consumption they came to consider ‘normal’; consequently, children have much less direct interactions with their parents; they may spend more time on social media and watching screens than personally interacting with others and spending time in natural environments. Vicious cycles tend to make people self-centered and materialistic, which is reflected in our institutions. People often move because of economic opportunities, tearing the fabric of extended families further apart.
Debts and new expectations lead to instability with much pressure to earn more. For some people, adjusting to decreased incomes and high college loan payments is a major issue, but the problem is much deeper and broader. More and more people feel enslaved by their debts. Debts lead to depression, marital problems and other family conflicts, there usually is learned helplessness; heavily indebted people tend to discount their future which may lead to crimes, recklessness, substance abuse (particularly in men) and suicide. A sense that life has become meaningless and that cultures move in a bad direction may encourage reactionary, conservative religiosity. While giving church members a feeling of having found hope and a supportive community (their ‘tribe’), religions divide societies further. Broad altruistic thoughts and ecological considerations become peripheral.
Regarding debts due to poverty and overspending by the middleclass: As the New York Times reported in April and May 2019, more than 70 million Americans, more than one in five, have debts in collection stage, and Americans borrowed $88 billions to pay for health care (average over $1,000 for a household of four); about 25% skipped treatment because of costs.1

1.2.5 Stratification and modern socioeconomic classes
Primitive gathering-hunting groups were largely egalitarian with everybody contributing to raising families; leaders were generally elected based on leadership qualities and because people trusted a person who stepped forward and addressed conflicts. Many cultures of herders with or without limited agriculture still are largely small-group and village based with clans helping to organize larger areas. “High cultures” with agriculture led to stratification, ‘higher’ classes dominated; captives of wars often became slaves.
As both modern economies and democratic institutions gradually developed, societies in all parts of the world stayed stratified. However, in modern capitalism, cultural institutions have gradually changed; social classes were less defined and had legally less meaning; and rather than having more or less stable classes or casts, we consider our civilization as “upwardly mobile.” Actually, the U.S. society is simply mobile and unstable: few poor people rise to the middleclass and people frequently decline in their position: they may lose their ancestors’ quasi aristocratic status, and/or a middleclass workers’ well-paying job ends due to mechanization and global trade.
Economical and psychological consequences of this instability are significant. Without considerable luck and much hard work, poor people’s ability to move out of poverty is, in the USA, low. There may be lateral movements to new jobs. In addition, while the economy seems to be growing, services previously provided within families are transferred to low quality commercial enterprises, including fast food places and cheap day care for children as young as a few weeks old. Poor people are partly stuck in low-paying jobs because the public education system is not adapted to the needs of children living in poverty, most school classes are not adequately stimulating the interests of children, and higher education is not adequately subsidized. Poor people in most other industrialized countries are considerably more upwardly mobile.
When people feel insecure and anxious due to economic problems their level of functioning usually suffers. If they are relatively successful, most have little inclination to save and contribute to poor family members. Instead, they join a higher class and compare themselves to the more affluent. Their spending habits rapidly increase and they may acquire large debts. Many make ‘charitable’ (tax-deductible) donations, but they tend to support what enriches their personal lives, for instance ostentatious churches and organizations that offer fitness facilities they use, rather than NGO’s that address the suffering of the poor within their country and in the Third World.
A profound lack of social and family support and prior abuse experiences are major contributors to mental disorders, crimes and drug and alcohol addiction. Vicious cycles develop that include children growing up in very deprived neighborhoods; children being raised by single and/or dysfunctional, violent and negligent parents; children being assaulted and otherwise victimized; adolescents starting to perpetrate some property crimes and/or violence; adolescents developing mood, anxiety and abuse-addiction disorders, possibly with traumatic or other forms of brain damage; juveniles and young parents being incarcerated; etc. Improving economic conditions and schools is pivotal in helping populations trapped in poverty and addictions. Helping families with children is particularly important in breaking vicious cycles.
Holding out hope of moving up in rank order, be that in a managerial job, in sports, as performer, or even in a criminal career, particularly poor young people may work very hard to improve some abilities; they may accept dangerous and unethical ways of earning money. However, on some level they know that very few reach an exciting, extraordinary goal, and if the goal is in sports or show business, careers are usually very exacting and short. The aspect of gambling may lead to excitement and often influences decision-making.
Poor people generally tend to overspend; in addition, safety concerns and bad schools prompt families to move into neighborhoods they can hardly afford and both parents have to work full-time or have more than one job. Children are emotionally neglected and there is generally poor quality of life, side by side with an irrational focus on increasing the material living standard. Because the unemployed, disenfranchised, and disabled are more isolated, they depend more on government institutions, on scavenging, begging and/or property crimes.
The consequence of very young poor children being largely raised in low-quality child care appears to be a major contributor to the USA’s high infant mortality rate: studies have shown that only this demographic group of infants has comparably a much higher mortality rate than other industrialized countries.

1.2.6 Causes and consequent inefficiencies, discrimination    added 4/2017
Cultures in all parts of the world led to social stratification, the subordation of women and the development of cultural traditions and fads, including elaborate, often ridiculous clothes and mutilating body modifications. The evolving traditions were usually reinforced by religions. They led to major discrimination and suffering and they prevented people from developing talents and skills.
Cultures evolved consequent to coincidental factors and with the goal of distinguishing themselves from ‘inferior’ neighbors rather than to optimally adapt and improve people’s quality of life; in many cultures, economic progress appears coincidental. Most cultures were very oppressive and rather aggravated instinctive tendencies to cruelties. Modern people admire old cultures’ achievements, but most developments led to major inefficiencies, abuses and deprivation. Some cultures collapsed because their religions and traditions did not allow them to adapt2. People may have perceived cultural achievements as creating beauty, but nature and simple, functionally designed artifacts are often seen as more beautiful than fashionable designs. Some cultural and religious movements attempted to improve customs and mandates to reduce suffering, but their efforts were usually soon subordinated to the traditions they tried to change. Even today, many religious and political leaders are suspicious of changes and often interfere with progress.
What is monetarily valued becomes attractive to people and is usually perceived to enhance status. Thus kings, presidents, religious leaders, successful merchants, and generally prominent and wealthy people have been striving for a lifestyle that depends on the exploitation of lower class, poorly paid people who produce fancy goods and work as servants. Buying anything, turning a symbol of value (a check or bank note) into something palpable and attractive, feels rewarding. Buying and money, the medium to buy whatever a society produces, are addicting. While accumulating wealth and rising in rank, people develop a proclivity to discriminate against everybody who is in a lower position, and wealthy people may literally consider themselves above the laws of their country.
In virtually all old civilizations, stratification of society led to much discrimination against lower classes; it usually compelled boys to stay in the profession of their fathers or pursue what his parents chose. Girls were not only forced to live the hard, restricted lives of their mothers, they had no recourse if mistreated by their husbands and in-laws. Work that women tend to prefer or are compelled to do, such as working with children, the underprivileged, disabled, sick and old, is universally undervalued. Even indigenous people usually value men’s hunting higher than women’s gathering the staples of their nutrition or agricultural work. Any discrimination leads to suffering and inefficiencies; the severe discrimination against women has been and still is most universal.
After some coincidentally different developments, cultures apparently first evolved because tribes wanted to be different from “inferior” neighboring tribes, modifying bodies with adornments, scarifications and mutilations and inventing clothing that may be practical and simple or elaborate, ornate and often preposterous; they invented their legends and religions, built conspicuous temples, established armies to expand their leaders’ power, legal systems with cruel punishments, etc. Comparing humans with other animals, cultures evolve as if differentiating into distinct species, and people rarely intermarried between cultures and linguistic barriers. While much required activities in ‘high cultures’ were painful, wasteful and/or very time-consuming, parents almost everywhere want their children to have better lives than they had, and particularly when situations change, people seek adaptations, at least to the degree their culture allows.
The instinct of wanting to rise in rank is dangerous because it has no natural satiation. In small groups, many boys wanted to become the “alpha male” leader and possibly expand the territory and size of their groups. In anonymous societies there is no limit to the accumulation of wealth and power. In antiquity, leaders claimed hundreds if not thousands of girls/women as possession, as their wives, concubines or slaves. People who become presidents or CEOs usually want to broaden their positions’ power and enlarge the enterprises or territories they control.
One of the greatest tragedies in the development of cultures is the discrimination, subjugation and mistreatment of girls and women. The socially inferior position of women is partly a result of evolution: in chimpanzees, in primitive humans who live in small groups and in many higher cultures, adolescent or young adult females usually have to leave the group or village to find an appropriate mate. In many towns, virtually all families have the same last name because young women move to other villages. They then lose their names and identity as citizens of their parents’ village, where they grew up and where their brothers stay. In their new homes, the young wives have no allies and are completely dependent on their male mates and in-laws.
Instinctively, girls are more interested in the inner circle and social harmony of a family while boys may want to defend the periphery, move fast and fight off (imagined) enemies. In courtship, women are partly attractive to men because of child features, being petite with smooth skin, little body hair and also a round, more child-like head shape, rather than the typically male forward slanted face (a small nose and lower face is generally preferred). Women are shorter and usually have to look up to males. Girls like leadership qualities in boys and tend to hide knowledge if they know more than an attractive boy, and girls often intonate statements like a question to be affirmed by their boyfriend. They are much less assertive in asking for what they deserve than boys, and if something goes badly, they are more likely to accept blame. Men like women’s relative helplessness when pregnant or carrying a small child. Naturally women are more vulnerable and, when alone, easily raped; women more than men should be protected by peers, male friends and police since being raped by a man that is in no way desirable as the father of a future child is much worse than a boy being sodomized. These factors, and a frequent preoccupation with vulnerable, fearful virgin girl brides, led many cultures to force young girls into marriage, often to an older man, possibly in a polygamous family.
Women think somewhat differently than men and are generally more intuitive and pragmatic, which has at times been threatening to male leaders, resulting, figuratively and literally, to witch-hunts. Religious and political leaders have broadly reinforced a propensity to blame and sometimes fear women and to devalue and subjugate them.
Discrimination against minority groups has also been widely encouraged by leaders. Continued discrimination against minorities may be partly understood because people instinctively perceive “others” as probably inferior and possibly threatening. In many cultures immigrants and, more recently, also highly educated women have greatly contributed to progress. Admission of women to all universities and highly intelligent, educated immigrants, many from Third World countries, have kept the USA in a leadership position it would have lost without women professionals and immigrants.
In emergent economies, young women working for several years in factories led to great economic progress and a higher position of women, even if work conditions have been exploitative. Women who reached some financial independence, through work, micro-loans or small grants, have generally been much more responsible in pursuing progress for their families than men who live in poverty. Obviously, women’s roles are more complex than males’; civilizations must attend to consequent conflicts; and civilizations must keep working against ingrained perceptions of women being exploitable, weak and not appropriate for leadership positions.
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1  Consumer Bureau Moves to Cap Debt Collectors’ Calls, and Allow Texts and Emails By Stacy Cowley, The New York Times, April 7, 2019
Americans Borrowed $88 Billion to Pay for Health Care Last Year, Survey Finds, By Karen Zraick, The New York Times, April 2, 2019
2  Jared Diamond: Collapse – How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive 2005

 

 

 

 

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