4.4 Social Organization
4.4.1 Large versus small social units
4.4.2 Communities (revised 8/2014)
4.4.3 District, regional and federal governance
4.4.4 Goal of relative self-sufficiency of areas, transportation systems
4.4.5 Goal of relatively high population density, cultural and local adaptation, parks and nature preserves
4.4.6 Schools, education of children
4.4.7 Teaching history, anthropology, world literature, ethical considerations
4.4.1 Large versus small social units
Modern Western civilizations have largely failed to provide a healthy environment for people’s psychological and social needs and they have created major ecological problems. In large cities, anonymity is a major problem1. In isolated small towns and villages, people feel a lack of privacy, inadequate variety of personalities as potential friends, and usually a lack of cultural opportunities due to the small number of people. In suburbs, institutions that help develop a sense of community are largely lacking; people have little contact with neighbors, and people move much more frequently than in previous generations.
Economically, there is also a tradeoff between a large, impersonal corporation as compared with a small enterprise in which workers feel camaraderie and take pride in their products, or a family store in which the seller knows the products and feels good about individual customers’ satisfaction. Large corporations seem efficient but generally create major social and ecological problems, are administratively inflexible, may cause economic instability and generally decrease the quality of life of communities. All costs considered, they are hardly more efficient than small enterprises.
Similar considerations apply to social and educational institutions. Large, consolidated schools are more likely to afford fancy laboratories, art studios, libraries, etc., but with the anonymity of large institutions there is a general loss of social comfort and usually an increase in crimes. The quality of teachers and the relationship between students and teachers is much more important than facilities and teaching tools.
Breaking up large institutions into smaller units with much less hierarchical structures and fewer administrators, decreases differences in incomes and living standards between and within social groups. This is important for people’s quality of life since a sense of poverty and deprivation develops from major differences in standard of living within a vicinity. A low material living standard is easily accepted if people are not living much below what, within a society, is considered a “normal” way of living and if they are not frequently exposed to tempting luxuries they could never afford.
4.4.2 Communities (revised 8/2014)
In the proposed model, communities form small semi-anonymous societies, which are designed to fulfill most psychological and physical needs of its members within their cultural framework and level of development. People recognize almost every inhabitant as belonging to the community, but they are only close to a limited number of community members, and they have friends outside their community. Communities consist of a neighborhood, town, or group of settlements. Their population is approximately a thousand inhabitants. Generally, all its facilities are within walking distance, some are accessible with convenient public transportation.
In areas of low population density, communities have their own day care, preschool, primary and possibly secondary school, store combined with a coffee shop or tea room and a small library; paticularly books for children may also be available for sale. Communities may be built around a small central square or plaza, park with playground and opportunity to swim; they may include a dance hall, communal workshop for small projects and center for meditation and worship. Communities may also have their own clinic for basic health care and facilities for the elderly. Some amenities, and institutions may be shared by neighboring communities, particularly when communities are within walking distance from each other or connected with bicycle paths. Each community has access to public transportation, connecting it with neighboring communities and centers of culture, higher education, and commerce.
Particularly immigrant communities may vary significantly regarding local culture, including styles of clothing and buildings and responses to social needs. City planners and architects may incorporate ideas and designs of other cultures to improve a sense of community, esthetics and cultural diversity. In many communities, material living standards may be low and housing simple, but quality of life is high due to good social connectedness and support, good infrastructure, cultural encouragement of healthy lifestyles, and healthy environments with natural, artificially enhanced, and artistic beauty. People are free to visit any community and to move, as feasible.
Communities may contain small industries, hydroponic food production plants and service centers, located within or at the outskirts of residential areas. These may attract workers and serve customers, clients, or patients from larger areas.
While there is rapid progress regarding material living standard with broad access to information and worldwide communication, actual school buildings, libraries, museums, side walk cafes, plazas, parks and public transportation will probably continue to fulfill social needs and enrich lives.
It is unclear if the loss of handwriting would be acceptable to future generations; if people no longer want to hold actual books, see original art, etc. Electronically available music and electronic instruments are today of high quality; still people wish to sing in choirs, play in and hear orchestras and play for themselves conventional instruments. For severely handicapped, mentally retarded and demented persons, robotic pets and mural size depictions of nature may be valuable, but healthy people probably benefit much more from direct contact with real pet animals, watching wild animals in nature, working in gardens and spending time in nature preserves or national parks.
4.4.3 District, regional and federal governments
Regions (comparable to states), areas or districts (comparable to counties) and communities may establish or maintain a distinct cultural identity. People are educated to be tolerant, respecting families’ and individuals’ privacy, however, communities must never tolerate seriously unethical behaviors, such as cruelties and domestic violence. Communities have a center, such as a plaza with adjacent school, place of meditation or worship, etc. and their boundaries are defined by land ownership of its inhabitants and boundaries of community parks. Larger political units are defined by centers with institutions, such as a secondary school and/or university, government buildings, complexes of specialty shops and restaurants, a plaza or central park, etc., rather than by boundaries. Cities may consist of one or multiple districts; a metropolis may form a political region, broken down into districts (or city quarters) and containing many communities.
Regional and area governments regulate industries, construction, agriculture and services. Most work for which governments are responsible is contracted to local enterprises. District and regional governments may administer larger service institutions, including secondary schools, universities and health care facilities. Universities advise governments and governmental agencies, they may offer consultation or supervisory services to private institutions Universities also administer central libraries, museums, specialty clinics, hospitals, residential treatment centers, nature preserves, etc.
These institutions are generally located between communities, within metropolitan areas or in rural settings between towns, and they draw workers from extended areas. They are part of area, regional or federal capital complexes but do not include residential buildings other than student dormitories, and they do not form political communities. As much as feasible, units of these complexes operate fairly autonomously. Elected and appointed administrators may establish short-term and long-term goals and/or policy guidelines, and they monitor efficiency of operation. They mediate or arbitrate when cooperation between units is problematic, but usually avoid dictating approaches and solutions.
The federal government provides the money supply. It funds aspects of the infrastructure, health care, etc., incorporates planning and coordinating functions, but has little direct power.
While sensitive to local cultures, government planning must, on all levels, consider ecology, ethics, and people’s health. Physical activities, e.g. walking and bicycling, are to become meaningful parts of daily living. Societal institutions encourage diets that consider people’s health, ecology, and avoidance of inhumane treatment of animals. Buildings should be ecologically sound and rely mostly on local building materials. If reuse and recycling are unpopular and/or not economical, targeted taxation may be used to encourage ecological conduct.
Different areas may greatly differ in their culture and state of development. Some redistribution between wealthy and very poor populations is important. It should enable the poor to live contentedly and reduce migration from poor to more affluent areas, but it should not cause a drastic change of local culture.
With regard to cultures learning from others, it may be particularly helpful if members of different old cultures consult with each other, e.g. representatives of rural Latin American, Indian, Arabic-North African and Sub-Saharan regions. Outsiders may quickly recognize what is apparently unethical in other cultures. In addition, leaders in all regions should learn about positive examples of integrating modern views and approaches while strengthening positive aspects of their old cultures. In most cultures, women and men have different roles and functions while Westerners often treat women as if there were no differences in inherent characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of the two sexes. Cultures guide people concerning ways of expressing their instincts and needs, in choices about realizing specific potentials and in choosing or accepting roles in society, but culture must not restrict people from non-traditional choices in education, carrier, artistic expression and concerning roles within families.
Governments must consider and incorporate scientific research in their decision-making. Scientists from universities participate in governments as scientific consultants. Government representatives monitor the administration of universities regarding ethics and efficient, meaningful teaching and research. Goals shared by governments and university administrations include efficiency and effectiveness, avoidance of politically and emotionally driven fads and trends, prevention of discrimination and inhumane treatment of workers, students and recipients of services, and prevention of favoritism, corruption or dictatorial behaviors of authorities. Regions (comparable to states), areas or districts (comparable to counties) and communities may establish or maintain a distinct cultural identity. People are educated to be tolerant, respecting families’ and individuals’ privacy, however, communities must never tolerate seriously unethical behaviors, such as cruelties and domestic violence. Communities have a center, such as a plaza with adjacent school, place of meditation or worship, etc. and their boundaries are defined by land ownership of its inhabitants and boundaries of community parks. Larger political units are defined by centers with institutions, such as a secondary school and/or university, government buildings, complexes of specialty shops and restaurants, a plaza or central park, etc., rather than by boundaries. Cities may consist of one or multiple districts; a metropolis may form a political region, broken down into districts (or city quarters) and containing many communities.
4.4.4 Goal of relative self-sufficiency of areas; transportation systems
Relative self-sufficiency of communities, areas, and regions, and use of small institutions, whenever feasible, is important. People with specialized training and skills in all parts of the world should have the opportunity to serve their own people, working, whenever possible, close to home. For example, specialized medical facilities, including clinics, hospitals, and laboratories, should be established in all areas of the world. Sophisticated technical and medical equipment, developed in highly industrialized countries2, should be copied and distributed by Third World industries with no profits and without paying for patent rights. While highly trained people may work close to their families, specialists from highly developed regions should also aid least developed areas by working as teachers, specialist consultants, and in other ways3. Relative self-sufficiency encourages the maintenance or reestablishment of traditions, utilizing local crops when in season, preserving them, and using them in local recipes. Local season-specific foods, traditional dance, music and other art forms, sports, etc. strengthen cultural identity and diversity.
Additional reasons for relative self-sufficiency are ecology and nutritional needs of poor populations. Transporting products long distances back and forth within and between continents makes little sense, if comparable products can be produced and processed locally at comparable human cost. It is absurd to ship fruits from densely populated poor countries to the USA or process Third World produce in highly industrialized countries to be distributed worldwide.
For public transportation and transportation of goods, railroads are most efficient and promote social contact: high-speed trains for important interregional connections; standard gauge and light rail for most connections within and between cities; intermediate seize light rail, including cog wheel technology, and very small narrow-track trains (70cm or even narrower tracks) for sparsely populated and mountainous areas. Areas may utilize local materials, e.g. bamboo, for rail cars and biomass as fuel. Waterways complement rail systems wherever feasible. Use of cars, trucks and buses should be very limited, e.g. for vacation trips, people may travel by bus in groups and families may rent safe self-driving rental vans or cars. Otherwise small electric, human powered and electro-assisted vehicles are encouraged. Since people have more vacation and leisure time, air travel should be considered a relatively rare luxury.
Decentralization and relative self-sufficiency of areas allow material living standards to vary greatly within a country without decreasing quality of life, e.g. in some thinly populated mountainous or poor tropical areas, lifestyles may be simple and infrastructure at a lower level than in densely populated areas of moderate and cold climates. In border areas where highly industrialized and poor countries meet, there may be little difference between towns on either side of the border.
4.4.5 Goal of relatively high population density in towns and cities, cultural and local adaptation, parks and nature preserves
Generally, towns and metropolitan areas should be densely populated, avoiding sprawling developments of one-family houses and the reliance on cars, as is common in the USA. Architecture considers wholesome colors and lighting, inclusion of plants, etc. The goal of communities is to allow considerable privacy for individuals and nuclear families while giving the sense of being part of a larger community.
It is foreseen that apartments, town houses or huts are relatively small, comfortable, private spaces with little or no private land. Sizes of apartments vary to accommodate the needs of single and elderly people and of small and large families. People typically go out for their children to play, to pursue some horticulture, relax in local parks, etc. Communal gardens, reachable on foot from family apartments, with small shelters and restaurants for shared refreshments may serve health and social functions. City planning and infrastructure encourage walking, bicycles and use of other human powered and/or electro-assisted vehicles, and outside communities, public transportation rail systems, including narrow track, light rail, standard and high speed trains.
Nutrition is mostly vegetarian, largely based on soy products and locally grown legumes, grains, nuts, root vegetables, fruit and leafy vegetables wherever feasible. Hydroponic food production may add nutritional locally grown fruit, vegetables, etc. Limited amounts of meat comes primarily from animals, that have to be culled for ecological reasons, such as deer and antelopes; other food items and forms of meat may be produced with laboratory technologies not involving live animals. Eggs, milk and milk products come from small farms where animals are treated humanely.
Area and community governments take responsibility for people who appear homeless largely by choice and who do not feel they fit into families and residential settings. There are public bathroom and shower facilities, free or low-cost tent-size cabins with lockers where people can sleep and keep their possessions, camp areas with communal shelters, concession stands offering simple, healthy food, coin operated washing machines, places for camp fires, and covered areas for cooking. Social service referrals are offered and people needing medical care may be given transportation. Gatherings may be organized allowing people to speak about their problems and informal therapy and teaching may be provided to improve quality of life and possibly help people reintegrate with family and communities.
In order to create most of the needed energy, communities may rely much on their own renewable energy sources: orienting roofs properly and utilizing solar panels as roofing surface, residentially, in public buildings, and for shades in parks; utilizing wind energy, for industries and general electrical grid; possibly growing biomass for fire places, furnaces and stoves, combining techniques of heating and cooling that include geothermal energy from deep wells; etc.
Particularly poor areas may introduce and/or further develop devices adapted to local conditions, including energy efficient wood burning stoves, solar cookers, solar hot water, water filtration and water desalination, use of geothermal energy, and small windmills (e.g. vertical axis sail wind mills for pumping water, pounding or grinding grains, cooling, etc.).
Communities and their horticulture and agricultural land should be fenced-in islands within large, interconnected natural land areas, such as prairies; forests and wetlands or mountainous areas with open pasture land. Some park areas are developed for hiking, camping and other recreational activities.
Nature preserves and national park systems may include large areas with restored prairies, savannas, wetlands and rain forests between population centers. Particularly in areas where there has been rapid degradation of environments for raising cash crops and exploit fossil fuels and other resources, large, with each other connected park areas are established. In areas with much wild life and endangered species, animals should not live in isolated preserves; wide corridors should connect large habitats, allowing the animals to mingle and maintain healthy genetic exchange between groups. Such preserves may not be crossed by traffic lines other than tunnels and rail lines built ten to sixteen feet (3-5m) above ground to protect natural movements of animals and local people.
Surviving gathering-hunting people should be given a chance to survive with some adjustments in their cultures. Surrounding societies may primarily offer access to medical services (including hospitalization, vaccinations and medications for pain relief), provide help in emergencies such as food and water shortages, offer education in sciences and assist in eradicating damaging, inhumane traditional practices. Indigenous groups should be encouraged to discuss high standards of ethics and to incorporate some improvements, without destroying the positive aspects of their way of life; individuals or families should be able to emigrate to groups of other cultures or into modern state societies.
It is important to recognize that virtually all surviving gathering-hunting people and nomadic herders had contact with other groups and state societies for centuries; they often adapted to brutal invasions and destructions of the habitat they lived on; many were driven to marginal lands. Many groups went through phases of increased violence and/or became much more peaceful. Anthropological studies may be seen more as ‘snap shuts’ in continuously adapting cultures than models of humanity 10 to 100 thousand years ago. It is appropriate to help such groups in becoming peaceful and recognizing ethical principles.
4.4.6 Schools, education of children
School education has to follow principles of ethics and it must be adjusted to children’s needs. In early education, the parents’ role is very important; it is also important in teaching special skills, such as a child learning to play a musical instrument. School education must balance academic, artistic and physical health education, exposure to nature and experiential learning, and schools should limit individual competitiveness (though group competition may be valuable in motivating boys).
In all forms of learning, formal language teaching, reading what children perceive as interesting and/or entertaining, learning fro television, Internet clips, movies and games, material content and examples are most relevant. They clarify concepts and a model of the world and they teach aspects of culture and ethics. Examples for teaching should draw from various areas including children’s play, nature, agriculture, etc. They should avoid messages such as “good things happen to good children,” leading abused children and children suffering illnesses to feel guilt, and they should generally avoid gravely unethical behaviors, including unreasonable loyalty and vindictiveness, since they desensitize children regarding others’ suffering. However, children should not be overprotected from knowledge and depictions of suffering, violent encounters with animals and human hostilities, and when attempting to understand perpetrators of cruelties, children may at times identify with them. Examples used in studies may teach perspectives and understanding of very different people, present and historic; but stories should primarily convey compassion and empathy. Even when addressing children, perpetrators of violence may be portrayed as disturbed persons. Other examples should help children identify with persons who are positively motivated, loving, appreciating beauty and holding idealistic aspirations, and persons showing resilience after abuse and in the face of unavoidable suffering.
What children do in their spare time is relevant and must exclude activities that counter healthy developments and/or are addicting. TV programming, Internet use and particularly video games that reward highly unethical virtual actions usually strengthen adverse instincts and inclinations, and many are highly addicting.
In the transition from childhood to adulthood, children should move early from playing to learning about adult responsibilities to part-time apprenticeships with further broad and vocational school education, and/or to higher education. Adults are offered continued education. Many forms of arts and sports are encouraged at all ages.
Teaching history, anthropology and world literature exposes children to the breadth of human conflicts and how poorly people handled them. The immense suffering of previous generations must lead to discussing ethics and the progression towards realizing human rights.
A major issue that is largely ignored by schools is the significant genetic differences between girls and boys, particularly the differences in the development of male and female brains. In most boys, it is important that school education is delayed, not started in Kindergarten (as shown convincingly by the excellent results of starting school at age seven in Finland). In elementary and particularly in secondary schools, separate education of boys and girls with overlapping art and other events is generally preferable, adjusting teaching to sex-specific brain characteristics. Attempts of boys and girls to enhance their attractiveness, and wanting to pair up, with many misunderstandings and hurt feelings, generally interferes with positive school experiences, with focusing on studying and developing talents.
An addition issue is the size of many schools. Units should be at most 150 students and teachers, secondary and university school complexes should probably be broken down to sections of approximately 1,000 persons.
Preschool, primary, and secondary education includes academic and experiential learning, life skills, sports, arts, exposure to nature and applied ethics (particularly practicing broad empathy). Differences between the sexes and differences in temperament and propensities among children are appreciated. Education and classes are partly or largely sex-segregated, particularly in secondary schools. Girls and boys may work together in joint activities such as artistic projects, practicing a foreign language in short conversations and other structured events. Educational institutions offer constructive structured activities for young people after school, on weekends and during vacations. Institutions of higher education also maintain libraries, museums and parks, which may offer activities for young people.
Problems of adolescence are to a significant degree an artifact of the long drawn-out period between puberty and adult responsibilities, particularly in students of higher education and in United States’ secondary schools. Adults usually expect some irresponsible and dangerous behaviors, when teenagers fluctuate between self-assuredness versus uncertainty, ambivalence about learning from adults versus rebelling, and self-centered egoism versus idealism. However, in most cultures throughout human history, children moved quickly from childhood to adult responsibilities, maturing while hiding some uncertainties and behaving essentially in adult ways. Initiation equivalents were often helpful in the transition, for instance girls working for a year in a foreign country with different language and traditions, boys serving in the military or, in past European traditions, journeymen traveling around, working for some time in many places before they are accepted as adult tradesmen. Teaching adolescents theater arts, history, psychology, literature, and other classes in the humanities are often places where discussions may help young people develop ethical thinking, their sense of self and personal values, while there is an expectation that they behave responsibly.
Most video game playing is very destructive, worst games appear particularly addicting; video games that may serve as pastimes or education are not very popular. Many people, particularly boys and young men, are addicted to games that create a sense of control and power but rely on extreme forms of unethical behaviors; while virtual, these games still enhance unethical instincts and inclinations, they increase boys’ aggressive self-image and decrease boys readiness to help, they disengage players from reality and they compete with healthy human interacting, learning and maturing4. Any exposure to modern technologies, from essentially unlimited access to TV programs and Internet material to marketed games, needs to be scrutinized, since they are part of the informal educational system. What children are exposed to is relevant for a civilization’s future. Censorship is needed in the same way as formal and informal teaching by schoolteachers is closely supervised.
Boys and girls’ differ greatly regarding brain architecture, and different parts of their brain develop in different order and at different ages5. In preschool and early school years, teachers must be sensitive to properly address both sexes. Examples: Since infancy, boys’ eyes and thoughts are more movement oriented while girls’ are adapted to discern colors and surface characteristics of objects (the ganglia of the retina are anatomically clearly different with no ‘in-between’ stages or overlap). Compared with same age boys, girls have better hearing, are better able to recognize social signals and are usually earlier ready to learn reading and writing; girls are more eager to learn from and please adults. Girls, but not boys, are able to verbalize feelings at a young age since in girls feelings are early processed in the cortex where there are neural pathways to the speech center; and there are much more cortical left-right connections in girls’/women’s brains. For boys it is difficult to imagine and describe how others may feel or how another child would feel in hypothetical situations of bullying; boys are better in imagining what they would do. However, boys understand when hearing others describe their pain and fears, in real life or realistic fiction. Team or group competition generally works well for boys, motivating and socializing them and teaching them to accept losing; but girls are likely to be concerned about hurting the feelings of their friends in the other team. Behavioral differences between the sexes are not unique to human children; they are also seen in apes, some in all primates and even more distant animal relatives. It is also relevant to be aware that boys tend to overestimate their skills, abilities and strengths, often putting themselves into danger, particularly when with peers; boys tend to blame circumstances or others for failures, and self-esteem tends to be less of an issue for them. Girls tend to be sensitive to the opinion of parents, teachers and peers; adults interacting with girls should be sensitive with regard to their self-esteem.
Experiential learning such as working with dirt, growing plants, learning to feel the qualities of different materials, experiencing gravity and kinetic energy in play and in physical activities is generally neglected in the United States even though such learning should be an essential part of Kindergarten activities.
When forced to study letters and numbers before they are ready to learn reading and basic mathematics, boys often assume that academic school education is not for them and that they cannot compete with girls, that school is “dumb”; and they are unlikely to later change this attitude. For both sexes, school education in the USA largely fails to balance nurturing different aspects of children’s mental and physical growth, and the educational system fails to help children develop resilience.
4.4.7 Teaching history, anthropology, world literature, ethical considerations
4.4.7 Teaching history, anthropology, world literature, ethical considerations
History teaching is problematic. Teaching has been largely male interest oriented, dealing with distribution of power, borders of empires, moves and strategies in warfare and specific battles, hardly mentioning the immense cruelties and loss of life. Teaching usually fails to describe how families lived, how people found meaning in their lives full of adversities, what may have helped many to be amazingly resilient. Humans have generally been moving towards becoming more humane, partly because, with less pain in “normal” living, people become more sensitized towards extreme pain; and it is no longer broadly accepted (or “politically correct”) to enjoy others’ suffering and cruelties to animals as entertainment. However, teaching history and cultural anthropology may reinforce people’s propensity towards a fascination with cruelties and violent thinking, and with the ruthless enforcement of simplistic ‘moral’ rules that are psychologically and sociologically, unconscionable (for instance that a man has the right to ruthlessly beat a girl friend or wife if she had an affaire, that an intruder may be shot, that a pregnant girl must carry the pregnancy to term and turn the baby over to a by church or judge assigned person). When rebelling against decadent modern trends, people tend to revert to historical religious-cultural values and traditions.
When studying historical writings, world literature and cultural anthropology, we find that people at all times and in all cultures appeared concerned with similar emotional issues and conflicts even though there were great differences in how people responded to the problems. However, studying and envisioning details of what happened (and is still happening) is very traumatic: inconceivable conflicts and human suffering appear overwhelming. We know that there were very high birth rates, high maternal and child mortality, widespread abuse of women; generally oppressive treatment of women and people of lower social rank. In addition much suffering and premature deaths were due to wars, high rates of crimes and maltreatment, malnutrition, illnesses, accidents, cruel traditional practices and exceedingly cruel and erratic legal systems, both secular and religious; and there was a lack of any effective form of pain relief.
Children studying their peoples’ former cultures are, on one side, to admire great people of the past, but virtually all cultures asserted hierarchies that included ruthlessness and physical punishments towards whoever was considered inferior: slaves, maids and hired workers, often also children and wives or daughter-in-laws. If identifying with their hero, children may be more likely to act unethically themselves, when they believe violence was often justified. Without studying history, would people still believe that torture is an effective means to get information from an enemy? would people have reinvented tortures like water boarding? is studying the history of laws and law enforcement relevant or maintaining an untenable system?
If the ethical conflicts are not addressed while studying history, anthropology and literature, a likely result is that many children become desensitized and develop a callous acceptance of inhumane and grossly unethical actions that occur today. People must keep working on improving all aspects of education and civilizations.
1 Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Wider die Misstrauensgesellschaft, Piper 1995, ’97, p. 85ff
2 Most sophisticated machinery and equipment was developed with the help of Third World engineers, who were educated in the Third World, not receiving any aid from the countries who benefit most from their work and ingenuity.
3 Conversely, it is wrong if highly trained specialists from the Third World serve industrialized nations at very low salaries or move into the USA or Europe, after their country had paid for their education. Earning hard currency by providing sophisticated goods and services to wealthy countries is beneficial for poor countries, but if hard currency is used to import Western luxury products, their economy is harmed. Even within a country, luxuries like soft drinks may drain rural areas of scarce cash. A cultural emphasis on self-sufficiency helps economic development and prevents poor areas from becoming more impoverished. It should be noted that for instance Switzerland has developed its economy with many small factories in small towns throughout the country.
4 Sax, Leonard: Boys Adrift,2006
5 Sax, Leonard: Why Gender Matters, 2000, and also: Boys Adrift,2006, Girls on the Edge, 2010 The great differences are largely genetic, due to genes on the Y chromosome, not related to hormones; cultural influences accentuate, diminish or compensate some for the natural differences.